Response to stress
A stress response is any physical response to factors that upset the normal balance of a biological event. C. elegans nematodes are susceptible to many different environmental stressors that include changes in temperatures, exposure to high osmolarity, and changes in oxygen levels. Internal stressors include DNA damage, accumulation of unfolded proteins, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These stressors have been shown to have a strong impact on the lifespan of C. elegans. The regulation of stress responses in the worm are similar to that in other organisms and include modulations of pathways that control caloric intake, mitochondrial respiration, insulin/IGF-1 (IIS), and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) signaling.