Although several Caenorhabditis species are now studied in laboratories in great detail, the knowledge of the ecology of most Caenorhabditis species is scarce. In this chapter we present data on the habitat, animal associations, and geographical distribution of the eighteen described and five undescribed Caenorhabditis species currently known to science. The habitats of these species are very diverse, ranging from rotting cactus tissue to inflamed auditory canals of zebu cattle. Some species, including C. elegans , have only been isolated from anthropogenic habitats. Consequently, their natural habitat is unknown. All Caenorhabditis species are colonizers of nutrient- and bacteria-rich substrates and none of them is a true soil nematode. Dauer juveniles of many Caenorhabditis species were shown to be associated with terrestrial arthropods or gastropods. An association with invertebrates is also likely for the remaining species. The type of association is either phoresy (for transport to a new habitat) or necromeny (to secure the body of the associated animal as a future food source). There are also some records of Caenorhabditis species associated with vertebrates. The Caenorhabditis stem species was probably a colonizer of nutrient-rich substrates and was phoretic on arthropods. Some evolutionary trends within the taxon are discussed.