Methods Cell Biol,
Lipid droplets (LDs) are an intracellular organelle, consisting of a neutral lipid core covered by a monolayer of phospholipids and proteins. It primarily mediates lipid storage, metabolism, and transportation. Recently, research of LDs has emerged as a rapidly developing field due to the strong linkage between ectopic lipid accumulation and metabolic syndromes. Recently, more than 30 proteomic studies of isolated LDs have identified many important LD proteins that have highlighted and have also predicted the potential biological roles of the organelle, motivating the field to develop quite rapidly. This chapter summarizes methods used in proteomic studies for three representative species reported and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. We believe that this chapter provides useful information and methods for future LD proteomic studies especially for LDs in other species.
Work in our laboratory over the past several years has focused on the nature of early determinative decisions in embryos of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two of these decisions regard determination of sex and determination of the level of X-chromosome expression. C. elegans has two sexes, self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites normally have two X chromosomes, and males have only one (there is no Y chromosome). Genetic and molecular evidence suggest that C. elegans compensates for this difference in X dosage, not by X inactivation as in mammals, but rather by global regulation of the X chromosome as in Drosophila; that is, X-linked genes are expressed at a higher level per chromosome in 1X than 2X animals, so that levels of X expression are similar in the two sexes. Also as in Drosophila, the primary signal that dictates both sex determination and level of X expression in C. elegans is the ration of the number of X chromosomes to the number of sets of autosomes (X/A ratio) rather than the absolute number of X chromosomes.|