The authors, Coleman-Hulbert, AL; Johnson, E; Sedore, CA; Banse, SA; Guo, M2; Driscoll, M3; Lithgow, GJ; and Phillips, PC, submit the following correction for 10.17912/micropub.biology.000131
The original text as read &#8220;We assayed lifespan in response to imatinib mesylate exposure in threeCaenorhabditisspecies in triplicate using our previously published workflow (Lucanicet al. 2017a; b). is correct.
The reference Lucanic 2017b et al. is:
Lucanic M, Driscoll M, Plummer WT, Harke J, Chen E, Bhaumik D, Harinath G, Coleman-Hulbert A, Dumas K, Onken B, Johnson E, Fougler A, Guo S, Crist A, Presley M, Xue J, Sedore C, Chamoli M, Change M, Chen M, Angeli S, Royal MA, Willis J, Edgar D, Shobna P, Chao E, Kamat S, Hope J, Ibanez-Ventoso C, Kish J, Guo M, Phillips P, Lithgow G. Standardized protocols from theCaenorhabditisIntervention Testing Program 2013-2016: Conditions and assays used for quantifying the development, fertility and lifespan of hermaphroditicCaenorhabditisstrains. Protoc. Exch. 2017. doi: 10.1038/protex.2016.086.
The following reference is incorrect:
Plummer WT, Harke J, Lucanic M, Chen E, Foulger AC, Onken B, Coleman-Hulbert AL, Dumas KJ, Guo S, Johnson E, Bhaumik D, Xue J, Crist AB, Presley MP, Harinath G, Sedore CA, Chamoli M, Kamat S, Chen MK, Angeli S, Chang C, Willis JH, Edgar D, Royal MA, Chao EA, Shobna P, Garrett T, Ibanez-Ventoso C, Hope J, Kish JA, Guo M, Lithgow GJ, , Phillips PC. Standardized protocols from the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program 2013-2016: Conditions and assays used for quantifying the development, fertility and lifespan of hermaphroditic Caenorhabditis strains. Protoc. Exch. 2017b. 10.1038/protex.2016.086
Protein interaction mapping using large-scale two-hybrid analysis has been proposed as a way to functionally annotate large numbers of uncharacterized proteins predicted by complete genome sequences. This approach was examined in Caenorhabditis elegans, starting with 27 proteins involved in vulval development. The resulting map reveals both known and new potential interactions and provides a functional annotation for approximately 100 uncharacterized gene products. A protein interaction mapping project is now feasible for C. elegans on a genome-wide scale and should contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms in this organism and in human diseases.AD - Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.FAU - Walhout, A JAU - Walhout AJFAU - Sordella, RAU - Sordella RFAU - Lu, XAU - Lu XFAU - Hartley, J LAU - Hartley JLFAU - Temple, G FAU - Temple GFFAU - Brasch, M AAU - Brasch MAFAU - Thierry-Mieg, NAU - Thierry-Mieg NFAU - Vidal, MAU - Vidal MLA - engID - 1 R21 CA81658 A 01/CA/NCIID - 1 RO1 HG01715-01/HG/NHGRIPT - Journal ArticleCY - UNITED STATESTA - ScienceJID - 0404511RN - 0 (Genetic Vectors)RN - 0 (Helminth Proteins)RN - 0 (LIN-35 protein)RN - 0 (LIN-53 protein)RN - 0 (Repressor Proteins)RN - 0 (Retinoblastoma Protein)SB - IM
The major intestinal esterase from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been purified to essential homogeneity. Starting from whole worms, the overall purification is 9000-fold with a 10% recovery of activity. The esterase is a single polypeptide chain of Mr 60,000 and is stoichiometrically inhibited by organophosphates. Substrate preferences and inhibition patterns classify the enzyme as a carboxylesterase (EC 188.8.131.52), but the physiological function is unknown. The sequence of 13 amino acid residues at the esterase N- terminus has been determined. This partial sequence shows a surprisingly high degree of similarity to the N-terminal sequence of two carboxylesterases recently isolated from Drosophila mojavensis [Pen, J., van Beeumen, J., & Beintema, J. J. (1986) Biochem. J. 238, 691-699].
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf,
In nematodes, 10 J/m(2)/min of UV irradiation induced a mild reproductive toxicity. Pre-treatment with UV irradiation at 10 J/m(2)/min suppressed the formation of reproductive defects, and activated a noticeable reduction of percentage of population with hsp-16.2
::gfp expression, an obvious elevation of superoxide dismutase activities, and decrease of oxidative damage in 50 and 100 microM Cd exposed nematodes; however, pre-treatment with UV irradiation at 20 J/m(2)/min caused a significant decrease of brood sizes or increase of generation times in Cd-exposed nematodes. Pre-treatment with mild UV irradiation did not suppress the formation of reproductive defects in 150 microM Cd-exposed nematodes. Furthermore, the adaptive response to reproductive toxicity from Cd exposure was not observed in a reactive oxygen species sensitive mev-1
) mutant. Therefore, pre-treatment with mild UV irradiation triggers the resistance to reproductive toxicity from Cd exposure by at least partially inducing adaptation to oxidative stress and through a mev-1
In this issue, we highlight work from J. Julian Blow and colleagues that shows how unreplicated DNA originating from double fork stalls are transmitted and resolved in daughter cells, a report by Yves Barral and colleagues on a potential role for diffusion barriers in ER compartmentalisation in C. elegans and a paper by Shan and colleagues reporting the first high-resolution crystal structure of M. tuberculosis trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase.
J Biol Chem,
Rab proteins are small GTPases that are essential elements of the protein transport machinery of eukaryotic cells. Each round of membrane transport requires a cycle of Rab protein nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. We have recently characterized a protein, Yip1p, which appears to play a role in Rab-mediated membrane transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we report the identification of a Yip1p-associated protein, Yop1p. Yop1p is a membrane protein with a hydrophilic region at its N terminus through which it interacts specifically with the cytosolic domain of Yip1p. Yop1p could also be coprecipitated with Rab proteins from total cellular lysates. The TB2 gene is the human homolog of Yop1p (Kinzler, K. W., Nilbert, M. C., Su, L.-K., Vogelstein, B., Bryan, T. M., Levey, D. B., Smith, K. J., Preisinger, A. C., Hedge, P., McKechnie, D., Finniear, R., Markham, A., Groffen, J., Boguski, M. S., Altschul, S. F., Horii, A., Ando, H. M., Y., Miki, Y., Nishisho, I., and Nakamura, Y. (1991) Science 253, 661-665). Our data demonstrate that Yop1p negatively regulates cell growth. Disruption of YOP1 has no apparent effect on cell viability, while overexpression results in cell death, accumulation of internal cell membranes, and a block in membrane traffic. These results suggest that Yop1p acts in conjunction with Yip1p to mediate a common step in membrane traffic.
The C. elegans postembryonic mesodermal lineage arises from a single cell M, which generates distinct dorsal and ventral cell types. We have previously shown that mutations in the Schnurri homolog sma-9
cause ventralization of the M lineage and that wild-type SMA-9 antagonizes the Sma/Mab TGFbeta pathway to promote dorsal M lineage fates [Foehr, M.L., Lindy, A.S., Fairbank, R.C., Amin, N.M., Xu, M., Yanowitz, J., Fire, A.Z., Liu, J., 2006. An antagonistic role for the C. elegans Schnurri homolog SMA-9 in modulating TGFbeta signaling during mesodermal patterning. Development 133, 2887-2896]. Interestingly, loss-of-function mutations in the Notch receptor lin-12
cause dorsalization of the M lineage [Greenwald, I.S., Sternberg, P.W., Horvitz, H.R., 1983. The lin-12
locus specifies cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell 34, 435-444]. We have found that although LIN-12 protein is present in both the dorsal and ventral M lineage cells, its ligands LAG-2 and APX-1 are asymmetrically localized in cells adjacent to ventral M-derived cells, and may function redundantly in promoting ventral M lineage fates. To investigate how LIN-12/Notch signaling interacts with SMA-9 and Sma/Mab TGFbeta signaling in regulating M lineage patterning, we generated double and triple mutant combinations among lin-12
(the ligand for the Sma/Mab TGFbeta pathway) and examined their M lineage phenotypes. Our results suggest that the LIN-12/Notch pathway and the Sma/Mab TGFbeta pathway function independently in regulating dorsoventral patterning of the M lineage, with LIN-12/Notch required for ventral M lineage fates, and SMA-9 antagonism of TGFbeta signaling required for dorsal M lineage fates. Our work provides a model for how combined Notch and TGFbeta signaling regulates the developmental potential of two equipotent cells along the dorsoventral axis.
Decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes catalyze the cleavage of a residual cap structure following 3' 5' mRNA decay. Some previous studies suggested that both m(7)GpppG and m(7)GDP were substrates for DcpS hydrolysis. Herein, we show that mononucleoside diphosphates, m(7)GDP (7-methylguanosine diphosphate) and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP (2,2,7-trimethylguanosine diphosphate), resulting from mRNA decapping by the Dcp1/2 complex in the 5' 3' mRNA decay, are not degraded by recombinant DcpS proteins (human, nematode, and yeast). Furthermore, whereas mononucleoside diphosphates (m(7)GDP and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP) are not hydrolyzed by DcpS, mononucleoside triphosphates (m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP) are, demonstrating the importance of a triphosphate chain for DcpS hydrolytic activity. m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP are cleaved at a slower rate than their corresponding dinucleotides (m(7)GpppG and m(3)(2,2,7)GpppG, respectively), indicating an involvement of the second nucleoside for efficient DcpS-mediated digestion. Although DcpS enzymes cannot hydrolyze m(7)GDP, they have a high binding affinity for m(7)GDP and m(7)GDP potently inhibits DcpS hydrolysis of m(7)GpppG, suggesting that m(7)GDP may function as an efficient DcpS inhibitor. Our data have important implications for the regulatory role of m(7)GDP in mRNA metabolic pathways due to its possible interactions with different cap-binding proteins, such as DcpS or eIF4E.
As a result of limited classes of anthelmintics and an over-reliance on chemical control, there is a great need to discover new compounds to combat drug resistance in parasitic nematodes. Here, we show that deguelin, a plant-derived rotenoid, selectively and potently inhibits the motility and development of nematodes, which supports its potential as a lead candidate for drug development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deguelin treatment significantly increases gene transcription that is associated with energy metabolism, particularly oxidative phosphorylation and mito-ribosomal protein production before inhibiting motility. Mitochondrial tracking confirmed enhanced oxidative phosphorylation. In accordance, real-time measurements of oxidative phosphorylation in response to deguelin treatment demonstrated an immediate decrease in oxygen consumption in both parasitic (Haemonchus contortus) and free-living (Caenorhabditis elegans) nematodes. Consequently, we hypothesize that deguelin is exerting its toxic effect on nematodes as a modulator of oxidative phosphorylation. This study highlights the dynamic biologic response of multicellular organisms to deguelin perturbation.-Preston, S., Korhonen, P. K., Mouchiroud, L., Cornaglia, M., McGee, S. L., Young, N. D., Davis, R. A., Crawford, S., Nowell, C., Ansell, B. R. E., Fisher, G. M., Andrews, K. T., Chang, B. C. H., Gijs, M. A. M., Sternberg, P. W., Auwerx, J., Baell, J., Hofmann, A., Jabbar, A., Gasser, R. B. Deguelin exerts potent nematocidal activity via the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Protein aggregates are the hallmark of stressed and ageing cells, and characterize several pathophysiological states. Healthy metazoan cells effectively eliminate intracellular protein aggregates, indicating that efficient disaggregation and/or degradation mechanisms exist. However, metazoans lack the key heat-shock protein disaggregase HSP100 of non-metazoan HSP70-dependent protein disaggregation systems, and the human HSP70 system alone, even with the crucial HSP110 nucleotide exchange factor, has poor disaggregation activity in vitro. This unresolved conundrum is central to protein quality control biology. Here we show that synergic cooperation between complexed J-protein co-chaperones of classes A and B unleashes highly efficient protein disaggregation activity in human and nematode HSP70 systems. Metazoan mixed-class J-protein complexes are transient, involve complementary charged regions conserved in the J-domains and carboxy-terminal domains of each J-protein class, and are flexible with respect to subunit composition. Complex formation allows J-proteins to initiate transient higher order chaperone structures involving HSP70 and interacting nucleotide exchange factors. A network of cooperative class A and B J-protein interactions therefore provides the metazoan HSP70 machinery with powerful, flexible, and finely regulatable disaggregase activity and a further level of regulation crucial for cellular protein quality control.