Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) mutually associated with the enteric bacterium, Photorhabdus luminescens, used globally for the biological control of insects. Much of the previous research concerning H. bacteriophora has dealt with applied aspects related to biological control. However, H. bacteriophora is an excellent model to investigate fundamental processes such as parasitism and mutualism in addition to its comparative value to Caenorhabditis elegans. In June 2005, H. bacteriophora was targeted by NHGRI for a high quality genome sequence. This chapter summarizes the biology of H. bacteriophora in common and distinct from C. elegans, as well as the status of the genome project.