Much of our knowledge on heredity, development, physiology and the underlying cellular and molecular processes is derived from the studies of model, or reference, organisms. Despite the great variety of life, a common base of shared principles could be extracted by studying a few life forms, selected based on their amenability to experimental studies. Very briefly, the origins of a few model organisms are described, including E. coli, yeast, C. elegans, Drosophila, Xenopus, zebrafish, mouse, maize and Arabidopsis. These model organisms were chosen because of their importance and wide use, which made them systems of choice for genome-wide studies. Many of their genomes were between the first to be fully sequenced, opening unprecedented opportunities for large-scale transcriptomics and proteomics studies.
Biomed Res Int,
Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.