The rising interest of the scientific community in cilia biology was evident from the fact that registration for the third FASEB conference on 'The Biology of Cilia and Flagella' closed out before the early bird deadline. Cilia and flagella are organelles of profound medical importance; defects in their structure or function result in a plethora of human diseases called ciliopathies. 240 clinicians and basic scientists from around the world gathered from 23 June 2013 to 28 June 2013 at Sheraton at the Falls, Niagara Falls, NY to present and discuss their research on this intensely studied subcellular structure. The meeting was organized by Gregory Pazour (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Bradley Yoder (University of Alabama-Birmingham), and Maureen Barr (Rutgers University) and was sponsored by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). Here, we report highlights, points of discussion, and emerging themes from this exciting meeting.